Publications

Great articles and research papers to explore

PEI Approved Publications and Reference Materials

Access a selection of Dr. Paul Ekman’s groundbreaking research papers, articles based on his work, and other fascinating publications. 

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Title: High-stake behavior analysis within an airport context

Author: Emotional Intelligence Academy
Publisher: EIA Group
Published: 2017
Description:

In this paper, we explore the impact of combining three key components of behavioral analysis into a training course for those responsible for observing, targeting, engaging and responding to those who may pose a terrorist or other serious threat to airport safety and security. 

First, the challenge of primary detection; identifying and targeting those with potential malintent from a crowd of genuine passengers and airport users from behavior alone, without racial or other discriminatory profiling practices. Secondly, testing the prediction through real-time capturing of behavioral data across multiple communication channels (Face, Body/Gestures, Voice, Linguistic Content, Interactive (verbal) Style and Psychophysiology) that aid veracity judgments.

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Title: Super Power for Sales Pros – A tool that trains you to identify lies, truth and emotions

Author: Dan Seidman
Publisher: SALESandMARKETING.com
Published: 2017
Description:

In sales training on questioning skills, I ask reps in the room to choose a superpower that would help them increase their performance. It’s a fun question and lets people imagine, well unimaginable success. The answers range from invisibility to answers like – the ability to predict the future and time travel. 

How about a superpower that’s under the radar-one that’s actually possible? How about the ability to read a buyer and know if they’re being truthful or deceptive -or better yet, to know which emotions they’re feeling during your conversation? That training exists and it’s being used by a wide variety of professions. It’s time we adapted it for the world of selling.

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Title: What Scientists Who Study Emotion Agree About

Author: Paul Ekman
Publisher: Sage Publications
Published: 2016
Description:

In recent years, the field of emotion has grown enormously—recently, nearly 250 scientists were identified who are studying emotion. In this article, I report a survey of the field, which revealed high agreement about the evidence regarding the nature of emotion, supporting some of both Darwin’s and Wundt’s 19th-century proposals. Topics, where disagreements remain, were also exposed.

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Title: Public appeals, news interviews and crocodile tears: an argument for multi-channel analysis

Author: Emotional Intelligence Academy
Publisher: Corpora
Published: 2015
Description:

In this paper, we propose a Six Channel Analysis System (SCAnS) for the (semi-)automatic investigation of potential deception across all communication channels. SCAnS builds on our current system: Six Channel Analysis in Realtime (SCAnR). SCAnR users are trained to code – as Points of Interest (PIns)–relevant occurrences of twenty-seven criteria relating to the six channels, when they appear to point to inconsistencies with respect to the speaker’s account (the story they are trying to convey), their apparent baseline and the context. Our experiences to date confirm the view that multi-channel approaches have the potential to lead to higher accuracy rates of deception detection than is possible when using individual methods of detection and/or when focussing on one communication channel independently (Vrij et al., 2000: 257), especially when combined with cognitive elicitation strategies.

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Title: Facial Expressions In Non-Verbal Behavior and Communication

Author: Paul Ekman
Publisher: University of California, San Francisco
Published: 1977
Description:

In just a moment or two expression flashes on and off the face. Wrinkles appear where the skin was smooth, or permanent wrinkles momentarily deepen. The eyebrows, eyelids, and mouth temporarily change their shape. Are these quick changes in the face expressions of emotion? How many emotions are shown on the face? Are these expressions true indications of how a person feels, or can they be falsified? Are most people able to read accurately facial expressions? What are the clues to emotion in the face; how is each feeling registered in the wrinkles and features of the face? Are the facial expressions of emotion the same for all people, or do they vary with culture, language, age, sex, and personality? 

Literally hundreds of experiments have attempted to answer these questions, dating back to 1914. The type of research that has been conducted and the answers obtained to each question are described in this chapter. The conclusion describes a new set of questions about facial expression that are just now becoming the focus of research.

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Title: Measuring Facial Movement

Author: Paul Ekman and Wallace V. Friesen
Publisher: Environmental Psychology and Nonverbal Behavior
Published: 1976
Description:

A procedure has been developed for measuring visibly different facial movements. The Facial Action Code was derived from an analysis of the anatomical basis of facial movement. The method can be used to describe any facial movement (observed in photographs, motion picture film or videotape) in terms of anatomically based action units. The development of the method is explained, contrasting it to other methods of measuring facial behavior. An example of how facial behavior is measured is provided, and ideas about research applications are discussed.

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Title: Detecting Deception From the Body and Face

Author: Paul Ekman and Wallace V. Friesen
Publisher: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Published: 1974
Description:

The experiment was designed to test two hypotheses concerning differences between the face and body when a person is engaged in deception. Subjects were required to be honest in one interview, frankly describing their feelings about a pleasant film, and to be deceptive in another interview, concealing negative affect aroused by an unpleasant film and simulating pleasant feelings.  As predicted by the first hypothesis, the face was mentioned more often than the body when the subjects were asked afterward what behavior should be censored or controlled in perpetrating deception. Videotapes of the facial and body behavior during the honest and deceptive interviews were shown to separate groups of observers. The second hypothesis-that when deceptive behavior was judged, more accurate judgments would be made from the body than from the face, but that when honest behavior was judged, there would be little difference in the accuracy achieved from the face or body-was partially supported.

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