Title: Facial Expressions In Non-Verbal Behavior and Communication

Author: Paul Ekman
Publisher: University of California, San Francisco
Published: 1977

In just a moment or two expression flashes on and off the face. Wrinkles appear where the skin was smooth, or permanent wrinkles momentarily deepen. The eyebrows, eyelids, and mouth temporarily change their shape. Are these quick changes in the face expressions of emotion? How many emotions are shown on the face? Are these expressions true indications of how a person feels, or can they be falsified? Are most people able to read accurately facial expressions? What are the clues to emotion in the face; how is each feeling registered in the wrinkles and features of the face? Are the facial expressions of emotion the same for all people, or do they vary with culture, language, age, sex, and personality? 

Literally hundreds of experiments have attempted to answer these questions, dating back to 1914. The type of research that has been conducted and the answers obtained to each question are described in this chapter. The conclusion describes a new set of questions about facial expression that are just now becoming the focus of research.

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